The number of diagnostic and interventional medical procedures using ionising radiations is rising steadily, and procedures requiring higher patient doses are being performed more frequently. As such, the need for medical staff and other healthcare professionals to be educated in radiological protection (RP) is more compelling. However, in most countries, RP training, particularly for medical professionals, is deficient. In this chapter, the need for education of different groups, including those who refer for radiological procedures and medical students, is discussed. It is recommended that this education should cover both deterministic and stochastic effects of ionising radiation with specific examples of RP factors that must be considered, and should cover the need to manage radiation dose according to the principles of radiation protection. Although recommendations have been made before by the Commission, this is the first report to specifically address the topic of delivery of education and training for medical staff and other healthcare professionals involved in the use of ionising radiation for diagnostic [radiography, fluoroscopy, computer tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine], interventional (fluoroscopically guided), and nuclear medicine therapy procedures.